What is the role of gender in cancer development?
- Many cancers occur more frequently in one or other sex, e.g. stomach cancer—twice as frequent in men.
- It is difficult to distinguish innate differences in susceptibility from differences caused by other risk factors, e.g. the greater incidence of carcinoma of the bladder in men was thought to represent an innate difference in susceptibility—but, when exposed to the same occupational carcinogens and tobacco smoke, women are at least as susceptible to the disease.