WHAT IS RESPIRATORY ANTIGEN PANEL (ANTIGEN DETECTION TEST, ADT, RESPIRATORY VIRUS IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE, RESPIRATORY VIRUS DIRECT STAIN PANEL) TEST?
The respiratory antigen panel allows for direct immunofluorescence detection of respiratory viral antigens from nasopharyngeal secretions and sputum, with the specificity of 97%-99% and varying sensitivities. The seven viruses that are responsible for common and severe respiratory illness are included in the panel: respiratory syncytial virus, respiratory adenovirus, influenza viruses A and B, and parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3. After the virus is identified, antibodies are added, and the sample is incubated. Antigen-antibody complexes are observed under direct immunofluorescence after IgG is added to the specimen. Sensitivity for RSV is 95%-99%. Thus, a confirmatory culture is not needed. For all other organisms, sensitivity ranges from only 20%-50%; therefore, confirmatory culture is recommended.