WHAT IS MURAMIDASE (LYSOZYME) TEST?
Muramidase (lysozyme) is an enzyme present in numerous body fluids (blood, saliva, sweat, tears, urine) and renal cells that is released into the bloodstream as a result of degradation of granulocytes and monocytes. Thus, it is a marker of mononuclear phagocytic cells. It normally functions in the process of gram-positive bacterial destruction. The proximal tubule of the kidney is the site of catabolism and reabsorption. Muramidase measurement may be used to differentiate lymphatic leukaemia from myelogenous and monocytic leukaemias because muramidase is not produced when lymphocytes are degraded. Because levels drop when myelogenous leukaemia and monocytic leukaemia are successfully treated, muramidase can also provide an indicator of disease remission progress. The level of serum lysozyme has also been used as an indicator of central nervous system involvement associated with leukaemia. Urine muramidase is excreted in renal tubular disease but not in glomerular disease. With normally functioning kidneys, serum levels must exceed three times the normal range before the enzyme will appear in the urine. However, in renal damage, serum levels may be normal in the presence of elevated urine levels.