WHAT IS THE MEANING OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA?
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a nearly ubiquitous condition, is the most common benign neoplasm of American men.
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA?
Three types of prostate gland tissue: epithelial or glandular, stromal or smooth muscle, and capsule. Both stromal tissue and capsule are embedded with α1-adrenergic receptors.
The precise pathophysiologic mechanisms that cause BPH are not clear. Both intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and type II 5α-reductase are thought to be involved.
BPH commonly results from both static (gradual enlargement of the prostate) and dynamic (agents or situations that increase α-adrenergic tone and constrict the gland’s smooth muscle) factors. Examples of drugs that can exacerbate symptoms include testosterone, α-adrenergic agonists (e.g., decongestants), and those with significant anticholinergic effects (e.g., antihistamines, phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants, antispasmodics, and antiparkinsonian agents).
WHAT ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA?
Patients present with a variety of signs and symptoms categorised as obstructive or irritative. Symptoms vary over time.
Obstructive signs and symptoms result when dynamic and/or static factors reduce bladder emptying. Patients experience urinary hesitancy, urine dribbles out of the penis, and the bladder feels full even after voiding.
Irritative signs and symptoms are common and result from long-standing obstruction at the bladder neck. Patients experience urinary frequency, urgency, and nocturia.
BPH progression may produce complications, including chronic kidney disease, gross hematuria, urinary incontinence, recurrent urinary tract infection, bladder diverticula, and bladder stones.
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