WHAT IS BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA?

WHAT IS BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA?

  1. 1
    WHAT IS THE MEANING OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA?
    • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a nearly ubiquitous condition, is the most common benign neoplasm of American men.
  2. 2
    WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA?
    • Three types of prostate gland tissue: epithelial or glandular, stromal or smooth muscle, and capsule. Both stromal tissue and capsule are embedded with α1-adrenergic receptors.
    • The precise pathophysiologic mechanisms that cause BPH are not clear. Both intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and type II 5α-reductase are thought to be involved.
    • BPH commonly results from both static (gradual enlargement of the prostate) and dynamic (agents or situations that increase α-adrenergic tone and constrict the gland’s smooth muscle) factors. Examples of drugs that can exacerbate symptoms include testosterone, α-adrenergic agonists (e.g., decongestants), and those with significant anticholinergic effects (e.g., antihistamines, phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants, antispasmodics, and antiparkinsonian agents).
  3. 3
    WHAT ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA?
    • Patients present with a variety of signs and symptoms categorised as obstructive or irritative. Symptoms vary over time.
    • Obstructive signs and symptoms result when dynamic and/or static factors reduce bladder emptying. Patients experience urinary hesitancy, urine dribbles out of the penis, and the bladder feels full even after voiding.
    • Irritative signs and symptoms are common and result from long-standing obstruction at the bladder neck. Patients experience urinary frequency, urgency, and nocturia.
    • BPH progression may produce complications, including chronic kidney disease, gross hematuria, urinary incontinence, recurrent urinary tract infection, bladder diverticula, and bladder stones.
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