WHAT ARE LYMPHOMAS?

WHAT ARE LYMPHOMAS?

  1. 1
    WHAT IS THE MEANING OF LYMPHOMAS?
    • Lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of malignancies that arise from malignant transformation of immune cells residing predominantly in lymphoid tissues. Differences in histology have led to the classification of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (HL and NHL, respectively), which are addressed separately in this chapter.
  2. 2
    WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF LYMPHOMAS?
    • B-cell transcriptional processes are disrupted during malignant transformation, preventing the expression of B-cell surface markers and production of immunoglobulin messenger RNA. Alterations in the normal apoptotic pathways favour cell survival and proliferation.
    • Malignant Reed–Sternberg cells overexpress nuclear factor-κ B, which is associated with cell proliferation and antiapoptotic signals. Infections with viral and bacterial pathogens upregulate nuclear factor-κ B. Epstein–Barr virus is found in many, but not all, HL tumours.
  3. 3
    WHAT ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF LYMPHOMAS?
    • Most patients with HL present with a painless, rubbery, enlarged lymph node in the supradiaphragmatic area and commonly have mediastinal nodal involvement. Asymptomatic adenopathy of the inguinal and axillary regions may also be present.
    • Constitutional, or “B,” symptoms (e.g., fever, drenching night sweats, and weight loss) are present at diagnosis in approximately 25% of patients with HL.
KNOWLEDGE BASE
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