WHAT ARE EXAMPLES OF OTHER GENES IMPLICATED IN CANCER?
Numerous steps in the normal processes of cell growth and division can become dysregulated due to genetic mutations and contribute to cancerous growth (Figure a). There are many genes that, when mutated, can cause loss of control of cell proliferation and contribute to cancer. Examples of some genes commonly implicated in cancer are shown in Table 1.
Figure . (a) Mutations in diverse biological processes that affect cell growth, cell survival, cell differentiation, and genome integrity can contribute to cancer. (b) Examples of biochemical pathways that are mutated (or altered in expression in the case of Notch) in four common cancers. These pathways participate in the biological processes shown at the top.
Table 1. Examples of Genes Linked to Cancer
Gene Normal Biological Role Cancer(s) types in which mutant forms are
PI3K Cell signalling Many (e.g., colon, breast, brain, liver, stomach, lung)
BRAF Cell signalling Many (e.g., melanoma, ovarian, colorectal, lung, leukemia)
RAS family genes
Cell signalling Many (e.g., breast, colon, ovarian, lung, pancreatic, leukemia)
HER2 Cell signalling Breast
APC Cell signalling and adhesion; chromosome stability
Higher order DNA structure and gene expression
Many (e.g., ovarian, kidney, liver, melanoma)
TP53 DNA repair; cell death Many (e.g., ovarian, colorectal, esophageal,
head and neck, lung)