Ritalin

Ritalin

Properties

This psychoactive medicine contains methylphenidate as active ingredient. It belongs to the group of central nervous system stimulants. This medicine may help increase attention and decrease impulsiveness and hyperactivity in patients with ADHD. The medicine should be used as a part of a total treatment program for ADHD that may include cancelling or other therapies.

Prescribed for

The drug is prescribed for:

•   Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder

•   Psychological, educational, or social disorders

•   Narcolepsy

•   Mild depression in the elderly

•   Stroke recovery

When prescribed for the treatment of ADHD in children, the medicine should be used only after conducting a complete evaluation of the child. Frequency and severity of symptoms and their appropriateness for the age of the child – not solely the presence of certain behavioral characteristics – determine whether drug therapy is required.

Before using this medicine

Before you use this medicine check with your doctor, or  pharmacist:

•    if you ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to any psychoactive medicine;

•    if you or your child have any heart problems, heart defects, high blood pressure, or a family history of these problems;

•    if you are pregnant or intend to become pregnant while using this medicine.

•   if you are breast-feeding an infant.

•   if you have new or worse behavior and thought problems;

•   if you have new or worse bipolar illness;

•   if you have new or worse aggressive behavior or hostility.

Treatment

Take this medicine only as directed by your doctor, to benefit your condition as much as possible. Do not take more of it, do not take it more often, and do not take it for a longer period of time than your doctor ordered.

•    Do not chew, crush, or divide the tablets. Swallow the tablets whole with water or other liquids.

•   This medicine can be taken with or without food.

•    Take this medicine once a day in the morning. The medicine is an extended release tablet. It releases medication into the body throughout the day.

•    The tablet does not dissolve completely in the body after all the medicine has been released. One may sometimes notice the empty tablet in a bowel movement. This is normal.

•    From time to time your doctor may stop the treatment with this medicine to check the symptoms being treated.

•    Your doctor may do regular checks of the blood, heart, and blood pressure.

•    In case of an overdose, call your doctor or poison control center right away, or get emergency treatment.

•    Dosage. The information below is based on the dosage guidelines your doctor uses. Depending on your condition or the condition of your child and medical history, your doctor may prescribe a different regimen.

Adults: The average dosage is 20 to 30 milligrams a dag, divided into 2 or 3 doses, preferably taken 30 to 45 minutes before meals.

Children 6 years and older: The usual starting dose is 5 mg taken twice a day, before breakfast and lunch; your doctor may increase the dose by 5 to 10 milligrams a day. If you see not any improvement over a period of one month, check with your doctor.

The tablets are designed to last for 8 hours; the patch should be applied to the hip area about 2 hours before an effect is needed and should be removed 9 hours after application.

Side Effects

Along with the needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects.

•    Serious side effects include:

Cardiovascular disorders

Mental problems

Slowing of growth (height and weight) in children

Seizures, mainly in patients with a history of seizures

Eyesight changes or blurred vision

Blockage of the esophagus, stomach,  intestines

•    Less common and rare side effects include:

Decreased appetite

Dry mouth Trouble sleeping

Dizziness

Stomach ache

Headache

Nausea

Anxiety

Weight loss

Irritability

•    Call your doctor right away if you or your child have any new or worsening mental symptoms or problems while taking this medicine, especially seeing or hearing things that are not real, believing things that are not real, or are suspicious.

Warnings and Cautions

•    Do not take this medicine if you are allergic or sensitive to any of their ingredients.

•    There is no information regarding the safety and effectiveness of long- term treatment in children. However, slowing of growth has been reported with the long-term use of stimulants, so your doctor will monitor your child carefully while he or she is taken this medicine.

•    Excessive doses of this medicine over a long period of time may cause addiction. It is also possible to develop tolerance to the drug, so that larger doses are needed to produce the original effect. Be sure to check with your doctor before making any change in dosage; and stop the drug only under your doctor’s supervision.

Driving or Hazardous Work

Do not drive until you learn how the medicine affects you. Do not work around dangerous machinery. Do not climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take medicines affecting alertness and reflexes.

Interactions

•    This medicine may interact with several other drugs; the effects of either could be increased, decreased, or altered. It is especially important top check with your doctor before combining this medicine with any of the following:

•   antidepressants

•   antiseizure drugs

•   blood pressure drugs

•   blood thinners

•   MAOIs

•   phenylbutazone

•    Be sure to tell your doctor about any medications (also over-the-counter drugs) you are currently taking.

Storage

Tablets, capsules, etc. should be stored at room temperature in tightly closed, light-resistant containers as directed by your pharmacist. Keep out of reach of children since overdose is especially dangerous in young children. Do not store in the bathroom medicine cabinet because the heat or moisture may cause the medicine to break down. Keep the liquid form of the medicine from freezing.

KNOWLEDGE BASE
About Genomic Medicine UK

Genomic Medicine UK is the home of comprehensive genomic testing in London. Our consultant medical doctors work tirelessly to provide the highest standards of medical laboratory testing for personalised medical treatments, genomic risk assessments for common diseases and genomic risk assessment for cancers at an affordable cost for everybody. We use state-of-the-art modern technologies of next-generation sequencing and DNA chip microarray to provide all of our patients and partner doctors with a reliable, evidence-based, thorough and valuable medical service.

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