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      What Is Laryngeal Cancer?

      • The larynx lies in front of the neck just above the windpipe (trachea). It’s used to make voice sounds and is also called the voice box. It helps to breathe and to swallow. During breathing, vocal cords relax and open. The vocal cords close when holding the breath. With swallowing, the larynx stops foods and liquids from going down the windpipe into the lungs. Laryngeal carcinoma is cancer of the larynx.
      • More than 10,000 new cases are diagnosed in the United States each year. More men than women get it, but in the past 30 years, women have been getting it more often, maybe because of increased tobacco and alcohol use.

      What Causes Laryngeal Cancer?

      • The exact cause is unknown. Some things that increase chances of getting it to include age (older than 55), sex (men more than women), smoking, drinking alcohol, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and work exposures to substances such as sulfuric acid and asbestos. Smoking with drinking means even higher risk. Laryngeal cancer is not contagious.

      What Are the Symptoms of Laryngeal Cancer?

      A common symptom is a lasting hoarseness or change in the voice. Other symptoms are a cough that doesn’t go away, trouble swallowing, pain with swallowing, loss of appetite and weight, swollen lymph glands in the neck, and shortness of breath.

      How Is Laryngeal Cancer Diagnosed?

      • For diagnosis, the doctor may do indirect laryngoscopy. The doctor uses a long-handled mirror to look down the throat to see whether vocal cords move properly. The doctor may also do direct laryngoscopy and put a thin, lighted tube (laryngoscope) through the nose or mouth to look down the throat. A biopsy may be done. In a biopsy, a small piece of tissue is removed to look for cancer cells with a microscope.
      • Laryngeal cancer must be staged to find out how far it has spread. Staging is usually done with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

      How Is Laryngeal Cancer Treated?

      • Treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Surgery to remove the larynx is called laryngectomy, either total (removing the whole larynx) or partial (removing only part). Sometimes, lymph nodes are removed. After a laryngectomy, a new airway through the front of the neck (tracheostomy) may be needed.
      • Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill cancer cells. It may be used alone to kill small tumours, before surgery to shrink large tumours, or with chemotherapy.
      • Chemotherapy (drugs that kill cancer cells) may be used before or after surgery or radiation.
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      What Is Mouth Cancer?

      • Mouth cancer is a malignant tumour growing inside the mouth. It usually grows on the tongue or floor of the mouth but may grow on the gums, lips, jaw, and roof of the mouth. Most often, this cancer occurs in older men who used tobacco and drank alcohol in excess.
      • When found early, mouth cancer is highly curable with surgery or radiation therapy. Treatment is much less effective if smoking and drinking alcohol continue.

      What Causes Mouth Cancer?

      • Chances of getting mouth cancer are greater with the use of any kind of tobacco—cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, and chewing tobacco. Using alcohol with tobacco greatly increases the chances of getting it. Other causes include anything that irritates the inside of the mouth, poor oral care, poorly fitting dentures, and sun exposure (lip cancer).

      What Are the Symptoms of Mouth Cancer?

      • The first sign is usually a small sore in the mouth or on the lip. It may be a small red or white bump or patch or an open sore (or ulcer) that doesn’t heal.
      • Symptoms include tongue pain, feeling that something is caught in the throat, trouble swallowing, swollen jaw, and voice changes.

      How Is Mouth Cancer Diagnosed?

      • The doctor will examine your mouth. A small long-handled mirror to see the back of the tongue may be used. A small piece of tissue will be removed (biopsy) and sent to the laboratory for study. The doctor may also do a chest x-ray.
      • If the biopsy shows mouth cancer, other tests may include computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to see the size of cancer and how far it spread, which is called staging.

      How Is Mouth Cancer Treated?

      • Treatment can involve surgery, radiotherapy, a combination of surgery and radiotherapy, and anticancer drugs (chemotherapy)•
      • Surgery will depend on where the cancer is, its size, and how far it has spread. For very large tumours, the surgeon may re¬move part of the jaw bone. Mouth surgery may cause swelling that makes it hard to cough, spit, eat, and even breathe. Some¬times a temporary opening is made through the skin in the low part of the neck into the windpipe. This opening, a tracheostomy, makes it easier to breathe and cough and clear fluid from the lungs.
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      • Innovative genomic DNA testing to investigate if you are at a higher risk of developing head and neck malignancy due to certain hereditary mutations in your genes.
      • This genomic test is recommended if you have a strong family history of head and neck malignancies (i.e. first-degree relative who has been diagnosed with head and neck malignancy).
      • You will be provided with a DNA assessment kit that contains all the necessary materials and instructions to have your DNA sample taken without any pain or stress.
      • You will be able to take your DNA sample in the comfort of your home (or you can get your treating GP or specialist to take it for you in the clinic). Afterwards, you can simply post the DNA sample back, in the provided prepaid envelope, to Genomic Medicine UK laboratory in London.
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      This genomic malignancy risk assessment evaluates your DNA for the following hereditary genetic mutations that may increase your risk of developing head and neck malignancy:













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      • If your results show that you are genetically predisposed to developing head and neck malignancy, your prognosis will be significantly improved by having regular malignancy screenings at shorter intervals. Please remember that the absolute majority of malignant tumours are treatable and curable when they are caught at their early stages.
      • If your test shows that you are at a higher risk of developing head and neck malignancy, this can be enormously mitigated in most of the cases by adopting a healthier lifestyle and following our malignancy prevention guidance. Please remember that genes are not a destiny book but are only a background for a multitude of different potentials.
      • It is always true that prevention is better than cure.
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      If you your genomic testing showed that you require referral to a specialist consultant, we will provide you, at no cost to you, with a referral letter to a specialist consultant from our wide network of independent doctors all around the United Kingdom. Our referral letter will give the specialist consultant all the needed details to take care of your clinical case, according to the results of the genomic tests you have had at Genomic Medicine UK.

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      • This advanced genomic test is carried out by cutting-edge next-generation DNA sequencing technology at our ISO9000 certified and accredited laboratory.
      • All test results are interpreted and reported in London by our highly qualified licenced consultant medical doctors.
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      If you prefer to visit Genomic Medicine UK instead of having your genomic test by post, as explained above, you are most welcome to book a suitable appointment for you to visit our premises in central London where our fully trained and friendly staff will be more than happy to take your DNA sample in one of our outpatients’ clinics in Harley Street.





    Innovative genomic DNA testing to investigate if you are at a higher risk of developing head and neck malignancy due to certain hereditary mutations ….