BONE MALIGNANCIES GENOMIC RISK ASSESSMENT

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Description

Description

  1. 1
    WHAT IS OSTEOSARCOMA?
    • Osteogenic sarcoma, commonly called osteosarcoma, is a rare type of bone cancer. This type of cancer causes bone tumour. It often affects the ends of the long bones of the arms and legs. It can also develop in the hip, shoulder, jaw, and other bones. Osteosarcoma often affects teenagers during times when their bones are growing quickly.
    • There are three types of osteosarcoma. The type depends on the way tumour cells appear under a microscope. Osteosarcoma can be:
      • High grade. For this type, the tumour does not look like normal bone tissue, and many cells are dividing. This type of tumour grows fastest.
      • Low grade. This type of tumour looks more like normal bone tissue, and not many cells are dividing. This type grows slowest.
      • Intermediate grade. This type of tumour is between the other two types. It is not common.
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    WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF OSTEOSARCOMA?
    • The cause of this condition is not known.
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    WHAT INCREASES THE RISK OF OSTEOSARCOMA?

    This condition is more likely to develop in:

    • People aged 10–30 years.
    • Males.
    • African Americans.
    • People who have a family history of the condition.
    • People who have been exposed to high doses of radiation.
    • People who have had a bone marrow transplant.
    • People who have had a type of eye cancer (retinoblastoma) or have inherited a change in the retinoblastoma gene.
    • People who have certain inherited genetic conditions, such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
    • People who have another type of bone disorder (Paget disease).
    • People who are tall for their age.
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    WHAT ARE THE SIGNS OR SYMPTOMS OF OSTEOSARCOMA?

    The most common symptom of this condition is a pain. Other symptoms can vary depending on where the cancer is located. They may include:

    • Increased pain after activity.
    • Swelling over the area where the cancer is growing.
    • A lump that can be felt over the bone.
    • A broken bone from a minor injury or for no known reason.
  5. 5
    HOW IS OSTEOSARCOMA DIAGNOSED?

    This condition may be diagnosed based on:

    • Your symptoms and medical history.
    • A physical exam. During the exam, your health care provider may be able to feel a lump on your bone.
    • Imaging tests, such as:
      •  X-rays.
      • MRI.
      • CT scan.
      • PET scan.
      • Bone scan.
    • A procedure in which a sample of the tumour is removed (biopsy). This lets your health care provider see how the tumour cells look under a microscope (grading) and determine the size and spread of the tumour (staging).
    • Information from the biopsy is important for planning your treatment. Osteosarcoma is staged from stage I to stage III. Stage III is the most advanced. Cancer staging depends on many factors, including the size of a tumour and whether it has spread to your lymph nodes or to other parts of your body.
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    HOW IS OSTEOSARCOMA TREATED?

    Treatment for this condition depends on the grade and stage of your cancer. Treatment options include:

    • Drugs designed to kill cancer cells (chemotherapy).
    • Surgery to remove the cancerous cells and surrounding tissue.

    The affected area of the bone is removed. Nearby lymph nodes might also be removed.

    • X-ray treatment (radiation therapy) to kill cancer cells.
    • Sometimes the radiation is delivered from a source outside the body (external beam radiation). Other times, radioactive chemicals are injected into the body.
    • Stem cell treatment. High-dose chemotherapy can damage the sponge-like tissue inside the bone (bone marrow). You may have a type of cell (stem cell) implanted. Stem cells are able to develop into different types of specialised tissue. Stem cell therapy can help restore bone marrow.

    The most common treatment is a combination of chemotherapy and surgery.Surgery to remove the cancerous cells and surrounding tissue.

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    BONE MALIGNANCIES GENOMIC RISK ASSESSMENT
    • Innovative genomic DNA testing to investigate if you are at a higher risk of developing bone malignancy due to certain hereditary mutations in your genes.
    • This genomic test is recommended if you have a strong family history of bone malignancies (i.e. first-degree relative who has been diagnosed with bone malignancy).
    • You will be provided with a DNA assessment kit that contains all the necessary materials and instructions to have your DNA sample taken without any pain or stress.
    • You will be able to take your DNA sample in the comfort of your home (or you can get your treating GP or specialist to take it for you in the clinic). Afterwards, you can simply post the DNA sample back, in the provided prepaid envelope, to Genomic Medicine UK laboratory in London.
  8. 8
    OVERVIEW

    This genomic malignancy risk assessment evaluates your DNA for the following hereditary genetic mutations that may increase your risk of developing bone malignancy:

    EXT1

    EXT2

    RECQL4

    TP53

  9. 9
    KNOWLEDGE IS POWER
    • If your results show that you are genetically predisposed to developing bone malignancy, your prognosis will be significantly improved by having regular malignancy screenings at shorter intervals. Please remember that the absolute majority of malignant tumours are treatable and curable when they are caught at their early stages.
    • If your test shows that you are at a higher risk of developing bone malignancy, this can be enormously mitigated in most of the cases by adopting a healthier lifestyle and following our malignancy prevention guidance. Please remember that genes are not a destiny book but are only a background for a multitude of different potentials.
    • It is always true that prevention is better than cure.
  10. 10
    FREE REFERRAL TO A SPECIALIST CONSULTANT

    If you your genomic testing showed that you require referral to a specialist consultant, we will provide you, at no cost to you, with a referral letter to a specialist consultant from our wide network of independent doctors all around the United Kingdom. Our referral letter will give the specialist consultant all the needed details to take care of your clinical case, according to the results of the genomic tests you have had at Genomic Medicine UK.

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    QUALITY ASSURANCE
    • This advanced genomic test is carried out by cutting-edge next-generation DNA sequencing technology at our ISO9000 certified and accredited laboratory.
    • All test results are interpreted and reported in London by our highly qualified licenced consultant medical doctors.
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    FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
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    FURTHER INFORMATION
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    SAMPLE REPORTS
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    BY POST OR BY APPOINTMENT

    If you prefer to visit Genomic Medicine UK instead of having your genomic test by post, as explained above, you are most welcome to book a suitable appointment for you to visit our premises in central London where our fully trained and friendly staff will be more than happy to take your DNA sample in one of our outpatients’ clinics in Harley Street.

£499.00

£499.000

Innovative genomic DNA testing to investigate if you are at a higher risk of developing bone malignancy due to certain hereditary mutations in your genes.

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