• There is a continued rise of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence especially in the Western hemisphere.
  • HCC main risk factors are hepatitis B, hepatitis C, alcohol, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
  • Screening programs continue to evolve, but depend mainly on ultrasound and α-fetoprotein (AFP) evaluations.
  • Staging of HCC depends on evaluating the two aspects of the disease: the cancer itself, and the commonly associated cirrhosis.
  • Pathology evaluation may help distinguish variants or combined HCC and cholangiocarcinoma.
  • Patterns of spread are hematogenous, and may involve lung and bones.
  • Surgery, liver transplantation, and radiofrequency ablation (RFA), are the sole proven curative therapies for HCC.
  • Locally advanced disease is generally treated with different forms of local therapies, including but not limited to, transarterial chemoembolization, bland embolization, radioembolization, and radiation therapy.
  • Sorafenib is the sole drug approved for the treatment of advanced HCC, based on an improvement in survival compared with placebo.
  • Future developments are likely to be dependent on the evaluation of combination therapies and/or the development of new targets.
  • Future studies are most likely to entail enriched patient populations based on biology, risk factors, and/or aetiology.
  • The majority of biliary tumours are adenocarcinomas.
  • Despite their similarities, biliary tumours are now better understood as three different diseases: gallbladder cancer, extrahepatic, and intrahepatic biliary tumours, with different clinical and biological characteristics.
  • Gallbladder resection may require resection of segments IVA and V of the liver plus a locoregional lymph node dissection for better tumour control and staging.
  • Preoperative considerations for extrahepatic biliary tumours include percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage.
  • Surgical therapy for distal extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is a pancreaticoduodenectomy, as for all periampullary malignancies.
  • No adjuvant therapy has been proven effective for biliary tumours.
  • The standard of care for advanced disease consists of gemcitabine plus cisplatin based on the ABC-02 study.

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About Genomic Medicine UK

Genomic Medicine UK is the home of comprehensive genomic testing in London. Our consultant medical doctors work tirelessly to provide the highest standards of medical laboratory testing for personalised medical treatments, genomic risk assessments for common diseases and genomic risk assessment for cancers at an affordable cost for everybody. We use state-of-the-art modern technologies of next-generation sequencing and DNA chip microarray to provide all of our patients and partner doctors with a reliable, evidence-based, thorough and valuable medical service.

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